The battle of Makkah was held when the Quraish of Makkah broke the agreement which was between the Muslims of Madina and Quraish of Makkah. It was an agreement of peace.
In the month of Zil Qadh, an agreement was signed between Muslims and Quraish. It was a ten years peace agreement between both parties. The deal made sure there would be peace among them and no fight. The two tribes, namely Banu Bakar and Banu Khizar, were enemies of each other and used to fight a lot. Banu Khizar joined the Muslims of Madina, whereas Banu Bakar joined the Quraish of Makkah. Both these were also supposed to follow the agreement of peace. Due to their evilness, the Banu Bakar wanted to hurt the people of the Banu Khizar tribe, so they, with the help of Quraish, attacked the people of the Banu Khizar tribe. They killed many of the people of the tribe. They even attacked the people who were hiding near Kabbah. The Quraish totally broke the peace agreement and went against it by killing the people of Banu Khizar. When Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) got to know about this, he announced the war against Quraish.
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BEGINNING OF JOURNEY:
On the 10th of Ramzan, Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) started his journey towards Makkah and 10,000 Muslims, which was considered the most enormous army of that time. The Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) was even also fasted that time. Many other Muslims of different tribes also joined the journey with Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) and showed their support with Muslims of Madina.
ACCEPTANCE OF ISLAM BY ABU SUFYAN:
When Abu Sufyan, the leader of Quraish, got to know that a vast army of Muslims was coming towards Makkah, he got so scared. They saw many camps of Muslims. Abu Sufyan was taken to Holy Prophet by the Prophet (S.A.W.) ‘s guards. He realized that ALLAH is the only God and Muhammad (S.A.W.) is the last prophet. He there accepted Islam.
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ENTRY OF MUSLIMS IN MAAKAH:
The Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) told everyone that he didn’t want to harm anyone and would not fight if the people of Quraish won’t fight. The Quraish agreed and did not harm anyone except a few men and women. Muslims fought with only those few people and then peacefully and calmly reached Makkah. The four routes to Makkah through passage if Hills were north-west, the south-west, the south, and the north-east. The Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) divided the Muslim army into four groups to pass from different routes. The Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) entered Makkah riding on his favorite camel, A.L. – KISWA, and he was reciting Surah Fatiha during this whole time. The Muslims entered Makkah on 18 Ramadan peacefully; only a few Quraish people fought against Muslims. It was a short battle against them, and Muslims defeated them.
DEVASTATION OF THE IDOLS BY PROPHET (S.A.W.):
The Holy Prophet (S.A.W.), when he entered Makkah, he broke all the idols which were built at KHANA E KAABA. The idol of Hubal, the so-called god of Makkah, was a problematic break as it was in a higher place. The Prophet (S.A.W.) made Ali (A.S.) stand on his shoulders to break that idol. No one stopped them.
FORGIVENESS GIVEN TO ABU SUFYAN:
As Abu Sufyan accepted Islam, he apologized for the evil deeds. He thought that he wouldn’t be forgiven, but the Messenger of Allah was so merciful. He forgave him, and even his house was declared a sanctuary by the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.). The Holy Prophet even forgave all the people of Quraish. The Holy Prophet told them:
“Today, I will speak to you as Yusuf spoke to his brothers. I will not harm you, and Allah will forgive you for He is Merciful and Loving. Go, you are free.”
(Ref: Ibn Kathir and Ibn Al-Hajjaj Muslim)
After granting an official pardon to the people of Makkah, the Holy Prophet went to Suffah. Many years ago, he declared his prophethood there but was rejected by people, and now at the same hill buy the same people, Islam was accepted.
The conquest of Makkah is the most remarkable event in the history of Islam as everyone in Maakah accepted Islam, and the place was free from Idols and its worship.